relationship between authority and responsibility

Your IP: It is a different matter though that in the modern society this tradition-conferred authority is suffering dilution. Authority may not mean the same thing as power A person many have the power to influence the activity and behaviour of other persons but he may not have the official or legal right of command and thus enforce compliance by others. Without authority, the executive cannot secure compliance of his orders from his subordinates. According to Koontz and O’Donnell “the obligation of a subordinate to whom a duty has been assigned to perform the duty”. 1. A manager has authority to order his subordinates to act or not to act in a particular manner. ‘Formal’, ‘Traditional’ or ‘Top-Down’ theory. As per this definition, there are two aspects involved in the concept of authority. Authority comes with special skills, greater knowledge, and vast experience, or perhaps due to age and the type of education a person has achieved during his lifetime. 1. They do so also because they trust his extraordinary technical, social and human qualities. G. R. Terry observes “In almost every enterprise, emergency and unusual events accrue which are not provided for in the organisational set-up. Responsibility can be discharged by a single action or it may be a continuous obligation. Top managers of the company owe responsibility and accountability to their superiors—the board of directors—who on their part are responsible and accountable to shareholders. It will help him in successful utilization of his authority. It is the means through which co-operative activity becomes a success and common objectives are achieved. Relationship between Authority and Responsibility Authority is the legal right of person or superior to command his subordinates while accountability is the obligation of individual to carry out his duties as per standards of performance Authority flows from the superiors to subordinates,in which orders and instructions are given to subordinates to complete the task. His zone of acceptance will be determined by a number of factors. 3. Allen defines authority as “the sum of the powers and rights entrusted to make possible the performance of the work delegated.” This definition emphasise the right and power aspects and adds another dimension, namely the implication that the authority is delegated with a view to performance of the work and is delegated to the extent of the responsibility for the work entrusted to the delegatee. Authority, Responsibility, and Accountability Introduction There is a definite relationship between authority, responsibility and accountability. This happens when he enjoys support and confidence of his followers because they see him as personification of their urges and aspirations. The word authority is used in the sense of ‘power.’ On th… The relationship between ... the report describes good practice in central and local authority relationships. The subordinates accept responsibility and are accountable because they are bound by service contract that requires them to do so to become entitled to monetary and other benefits and privileges provided by the organization. – George R. Terry, “Authority means the Power to command others- to act or not to act in a manner deemed fit by the possessor of the authority and is exercised in furtherance of the enterprise or departmental purpose”. Thus, union leaders of an organization may select a relatively junior worker to present their case before the top management for increase in salaries because they feel he is forceful and logical in arguing the case and has at his command well-documented evidence to support his viewpoint. While exercising authority, the manager must keep the following limitations in his mind. The term ‘authority’ stands for aptitude or rights authorized to an individual to make decisions, whereas ‘responsibility’ is a contract to maintain and manage the assigned authority. Relationship between Authority and Responsibility: Authority is the right of a superior to give orders and instructions to his subordinates to get things done. This theory is very simple, because the followers of this theory believe that the authority flows to a manager through acceptance by his subordinates of his power to make and implement decisions. Responsibility arises from superior subordinate relationships. Assignment of a task or responsibility casts a duty to perform something. However, relationship between CEO and an auditor who is appointed annually to conduct audit of the company accounts is a specific duration task or responsibility. A few definitions of the term “authority” are given below: “Authority is the right to give orders and the power to obedience”. A responsible person will weigh the outcome of his/her action and take the most logical and economic action. Thus, the concept of authority arises from the chain, which ties together the sections emanating from different persons in the organization. Before publishing your Articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. This shows that the obligation is the essence of responsibility. responsibility, and accountability in the relationship between contributor and recipient countries and the financial institutions they create and operate. There are any limitations to the concept of authority. In general, in business organizations, the authority is a result of the contractual agreement, under which the subordinate have agreed to perform certain services in return of monitory benefit. It is always considered to be the key to a successful Managerial job. Responsibility means the duties assigned to a person at the time of delegation of authority. Acceptance theory would be put to test only when a manager takes a decision and communicates it to his subordinate(s). A great recent example that illustrates the difference between delegating authority and delegating responsibility is seen in remarks made by Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg following intense scrutiny over the social media giant’s role in the spread of fake news in general and surrounding the 2016 presidential election specifically. They follow the leader because, according to their per­ception, he articulates their feelings and aspirations. Duty or responsibility may be in terms of functions, targets or goals. This is example of traditional authority. Authority is generally adopted with power to secure obedience. The whole organisational structure is based on the concept of authority without use of authority, anarchy and utter confusion will prevail all around the enterprise Authority is usually respected, recognised and followed in the organisation as a matter of course. Authority, in simple words, is the right way of commanding subordinates, issuing orders and instructions, and exacting obedience from the team. Hence, it includes the powers to assign duties to the subordinates and make them accept and follow it. A manager is responsible ultimately for the performance of his duties even though he has delegated it to his subordinates. Thus, as a matter of fact, there should be blending of power and influence to make the authority really effective. A person with extraor­dinary characteristics (charisma) exercises authority over his followers, even though the followers are neither bound by any law or tradition to do so. Responsibility is the most misunderstood term in the literature of management. Authority may be subjected to the bye-laws, standing orders, rules and regulation of the company (as per articles and memorandum of the company). Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. 3. Thus, responsibility is an obligation to carry out certain tasks. Henri Fayol, who designed the administrative theory of 14 principles of management, defined authority as ‘the right to give orders and exact obedience‘. Responsibility cannot be delegated. Both authority and responsible are the two sides of a coin. As Chester I. Bernard writes that “Authority is the character of communication (order) in a formal organization by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to or member of the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is, as governing or determining what he does or is not to do so fare as the organization is concerned”. Responsibility is a concomitant of authority, therefore authority and responsibility should be equal. • Some persons having attractive personality command others to work. He does this because he has made decision about the work behavior of his subordinates. It may, therefore, be said that authority includes power but power may or may not be supported by authority. Authority can be defined as the ability that an individual has to give orders and enforce obedience. Privacy Policy3. In order to ensure that authority and responsibility are co-equal, a correlative action may be resorted to. You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. Authority and Responsibility are two words that are often confused due to the appearing similarity in their meanings. Physical limitations such as climate, geography, chemical elements and so on, have their limiting effect on authority. (3) Exercise of authority may sometimes have element of subjectivity: There is legal or traditional framework in an organization within which authority may be exercised. By mere his personality people seek his advice and obey it. Responsibility is in the form of a continuing obligation. Share Your PPT File, Authority and Responsibility in Management – Meaning, Definition and Characteristics of Authority and Responsibility in Management, Authority and Responsibility in Management – Nature, Definition and Source, Authority and Responsibility in Management – Concept and Relationship between Authority and Responsibility in Management. At the root of his authority are his competence, charisma and leader-like qualities. According to some writers all authority is formal. They do so because the Company Law gives them this authority. Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform a duty, which has been assigned to him by his superior. The subordinate expects such decisions, and his behaviour is determined by them. Delegation of authority from a manager to a subordinate is in proportion to the nature of tasks and responsibility assigned to the subordinate. 6. The relationship between CEO and the production manager of a company is a case of continuing responsibility – the production manager must keep performing his task or responsi­bility so long as he is in the employment of the company. The superior frames and transmits decisions, with the expectation that the subordinates will accept and comply with them. In view of organizational set up, the superior-subordinate relationship gives rise to this responsibility as the superior is vested with the authority to get the specified work done by his subordinates. Main Differences Between Authority and Responsibility. Accordingly manager has no authority until it is conferred upon him by his sub-ordinates. cannot be held responsible. Authority and Responsibility in Management – Meaning, Definition, Concept, Characteristics and Relationship, According to Barnard, “Authority is the character of a communication (order) in a formal organization, by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to, or member of, the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is, as governing or determining what he does or not do, so far as the orga­nization is concerned.”. But if he is assigned the task of producing 100 units daily on the machine, his responsibility is expressed in terms of a quantitative target. (a) The subjective aspect that is the personal aspect of accepting a communication or order as authoritative; and. Authority is one of the important considerations in the process of management. Generally the authority to make decisions or the right to command decreases as it proceeds from the highest to lowest level of an organisation. Responsibility in terms of quantitative targets is pref­erable to general, non-quantitative responsibility. It is the power of the superior to make decisions which guides the actions of his subordinates. In a business organization a manager is vested with official and legal authority which empowers him to assign tasks and responsibility to his subordinates and demand accountability from them in respect of performance of those tasks and responsibility. Laws, trade practices etc. Authority refers to the legal right to relinquish command, influence or compel someone, while responsibility comes after authority. For example, shareholders of a company are the source of all legal authority to con­trol and manage its affairs. A manager’s authority is restricted by the enterprise goals, objectives, politics, programmes and procedures etc. How they use power and authority has great bearing on their success as leaders. But one must understand that the fact that the fundamental source of authority is formal authority emanating from an institutional framework or from an organizational structure. The task or responsibility to produce minimum 100 units per day is a task or responsibility expressed in quantitative terms. It may continue or cease with the accomplishment of the desired objective. we shall be concerned with the more general question about the relationship between autonomy (or self-direction) and exter­ nal influences, which I take to be any guide to behavior whose presence, content or substance is dependent upon something beyond the … 1. Responsibility Not Power. For a while he forgets that under the current global business scenario, an efficient worker would stay only if his compensation package compares favorably with that of similarly qualified work­ers in other organizations. Respect­ing and serving elders in family and society is an age-old tradition, so is responsibility of parents to raise and properly educate and train children for life ahead. 4. Assignment of Task or Responsibility Requires Two or more Persons: Assignment of task or responsibility requires, first, an authority-holding person to assign the task or responsibility and, second, one or more subordinates to perform that task or responsibility. 2. Authority flows downward, i.e. He also recognized that any official authority vested in the job was often ineffecti… Sometimes it so happens these attractive and commanding personality do not have any authority, but people waits for his guidance and follow it taking it as an order. (c) If the consequences of not accepting the authority would damage his career prospects in the organization, including perhaps loss of job. It assumes that a subordinate has the option to accept or reject authority and. Difference Basic of Distinction Authority Responsibility Meaning The power or right of a superior to give order to others It is an obligation to perform the assigned duty or order Sources of Origin It emerges from a formal position in the organisation It emerges from superior subordinate relationship Direction of Flow It flows downwards i.e. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge Thus the responsibility is the obligation to perform certain functions and achieve results. Some writers define as a duty while others call it an obligation. (b) The objective aspect that is the character in the communication by virtue of which it is accepted. 1. Is ‘Responsibility’ Different from ‘Accountability’? Likewise, only a person who is subordinate to the authority-holding person can be assigned task or responsibil­ity. Describe the delegation process, including the five rights of delegation and the importance of clear The word authority is used with different meanings as: A person with superior knowledge and skill is described as an authority in the sense of an expert. Authority is subject to the physical and mental capacity of the subordinate who has to exercise it. A sub­ordinates may accept the authority of the manager because – (i) he wants to contribute to the accomplishment of organisational objective (ii) he wants to obtain some reward by accepting it. Delegation of authority to a subordinate will not relieve a manager from responsibility to perform his duties. When such an event occurs, the person assuming authority to meet the particular circumstances is said to have derived the authority of the situation. 3. Their reward is the salary and prospects of promotion to higher responsibility positions in the organization. may also impose certain limitations on the use of authority. A responsibility is the outcome of a superior-subordinate relationship. Shareholders of a company appoint directors and delegate to them authority to manage the affairs of the company. Shravan Kumar spent his youth carrying parents on his shoulders to pilgrim centers. It can be acquired through persuasion, sanction, coercion, constraints or force. Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Responsibility results from a superior subordinate relationship. The essence of responsibility is then, obligation.”. It is also the right of the manager to make decisions. Only a per­son holding authority—legal, traditional or competence—can assign task or responsibility. Compliance is obtained in a number of ways trough persuasion, sanctions, request, coercion, constraint or force”. Authority is the only cohesive force that sets in motion the integrated activities of sub-ordinates in an enterprise. Similarly, if responsibility is greater than authority, the tendency of the management becomes difficult and even ineffective. The competition in prices of the product and other economic factors also affect the authority. Organizing will not end by dividing the originations into smaller homogeneous units. Authority may be subject to the social beliefs, codes, creeds and habits of the group over which it has to be exercised. The subordinate will accept the authority of a command, understand it, believe it and follow it in the interest of the organization. Legal authority or social or cultural norms become irrele­vant here. For example an order to make gold from copper. – Koontz and O’Donnell. The managerial authority is a rightful permission to act for the enterprise instruct the subordinates, impose penalty for wrong doings, use company property or to speak or act as a representatives of the enterprise. In a way through exercising the control the superior is demanding accountability from subordinates. The extent of delegation of authority also restricts the authority of a manager. But if the sales manager is assigned the task of improving sales performance, it will be difficult for him to work out at what point the sales performance will be deemed satisfactory by his superior. Authority flows from superior to the subordinate manager to whom certain duties are assigned and responsibility is the obligation of the subordinate to accomplish these duties. It changes with time, position and group behaviour of the subordinates etc. “Authority is the character of a communication (order) in a formal organization, by virtue of which it is accepted by a contributor to, or member of, the organization as governing the action he contributes; that is, as governing or determining what he does or not do, so far as the orga­nization is concerned.”, “Viewed internally with respect to the enterprise, responsibility may be defined as the obligation of a subordinate, to whom a superior has assigned a duty to perform a service required. Responsibility is the obligation of a subordinate to perform a duty, which has been assigned to him by his superior. Authority means a formal, institutional or legal power in a particular job, function or position that empowers the holder of that job, function or position to successfully perform his task. Normally subordinates recognize authority of those occupying higher hierarchical positions. Authority can be designated, but responsibility cannot be designated. Business Management, Functions, Directing, Authority. Responsibility Relates to human beings only. It is the authority a person enjoys by virtue of his superior position in the organisation. This shows that the obligation is the essence of responsibility. Difference between Authority, Accountability & Responsibility: Authority: It is “right given to a position by external source to do something”, this can be right to give orders, pass instructions or right delegated to use organization’s assets i.e. Normally, responsibility moves upwards, whereas authority flows downwards. 2. The right may also be rooted in tradition, or the charisma of a person. This means that a subordinate will accept authority only if it falls within his zone of acceptance. One main difference between authority and responsibility is that authority talks about the power one has while responsibility speaks about the obligations we must fulfill. It is a relationship between two individuals—one of them superior, and the other a subordinate. Without a clear understanding of this relationship, effective functional management, with clear lines of reporting and communication becomes a … On the other hand, when the president hires some lower for seeking legal advice and advocating a particular case in the court of law, his obligation comes to an end when the assignment is completed. These are the main characteristics of the responsibility: 1. Now the question – What source of authority would best enable a manager to perform his task? I believe that understanding the differences between the two can help in understanding the roles and responsibilities of leaders. Assignment of tasks and responsibility will be meaningful only when it is accompanied by delegation of necessary authority to perform the assigned tasks and responsibility.

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