verbena officinalis medicinal uses

In herbal medicine, the above-ground plant parts of vervain are used during the flowering period. Efficacy and safety of combined treatment of acute rhinosinusitis by herbal medicinal product Sinupret and mometasone furoate nasal spray. CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: In fact, the name "verbena" is believed derived from the Celtic word ferfaenmeaning "to drive away stones." "Vervain", presumably this species, is one of the original 38 Bach flower remedies, prescribed against "over-enthusiasm" [citation needed]. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. The Aztecs and other Native American tribes used vervain roots and vervain flowers as a diuretic and as a natural treatment for headaches, circulatory issues, and insomnia. The common name, vervaine, comes from the Celtic name, ‘ferfain’.Gledhill, David (2008). Dosage and Administration. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Vervain has since been naturalized to other parts of the world, including North America. Historical Medicinal Use: Although the leaves of . View abstract. The bioactive compounds naturally contained in the Vervain plant interact with your body. Wien Med Wochenschr 1999;149:202-8. It will tone and strengthen the whole nervous system while relaxing any tension or stress. Chem Pharm Bull 1997;45:499-504. Acteoside protects endothelial cells against free radical-induced oxidative stress. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Deepak M, Handa SS. What Are These Pimple-Like Bumps on My Skin? Rinsing the mouth with verbena after brushing and flossing might prevent plaque and redness by a small amount compared with brushing and flossing alone. Height – 8 to 16 inches (20 to 40 cm) Exposure – full sun Soil – light, well-drained Title Flora of the British Isles. including stimulation of lactation and treatment of dysmenorrhea Allow to steep for ten minutes. Watch this video and learn about the vervain herb, verbena officinalis, and how to harvest vervain. Verbena is distinguished by a huge number of medicinal properties, and is therefore used in the treatment of various diseases: colds and flu, cough, atherosclerosis, insomnia and migraine, headache and toothache, rheumatism, gout, nervous exhaustion, hypotension, poor menstruation, general weakness of the body and many others. Quintessence Int. Renew Your Energy | Improve Your Metabolism | Control Your Weight | Be Your Best | Explore Mindfulness. Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, clincal trial with Sinupret sugar coated tablets on the basis of a therapy with antibiotics and decongestant nasal drops in acute sinusitis. In Christian lore, vervain was used to treat Christ’s wounds on the cross, which is why vervain is sometimes called the herb of the cross. The appropriate dose of verbena depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. Antiinflammatory activity and chemical composition of extracts of Verbena officinalis. (check all that apply), What factors are most important to you? Peric A, Kovacevic SV, Gacesa D, Peric AV. Other medicinal varieties of vervain include blue vervain (Verbena hastata) and white vervain (Verbena urticifolia.). Protective effect of acteoside on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) Verbena herb (Verbena officinalis L.) For the temporary relief of symptoms associated with stress such as mild anxiety, based on traditional use only. The most commonly used species is European vervain (Verbena officinalis), though blue vervain (V. hastata) and V. macdougalii, among others, are probably interchangeable.V. You can use fresh vervain plant, crushed into a pulp. Vervain is very helpful in treating headaches and gallstones, and acts as … All rights reserved. Phytomedicine 1994;1:177-81. The fever-reducing properties of vervain are also great for minor colds or fevers. Planta Med 2005;71:484-8. Egyptians believed vervain first sprung from the tears of the goddess Isis as she mourned the death of the god Osiris. But first, how vervain works. ENT Updates 2017;7(2):68-74. It is still used as a febrifuge in autumn fevers. Because of its labor-inducing effects, you should not use vervain if you are pregnant. View abstract. They used the sacred vervain branches to purify their temples. However, none of those uses are supported by science. We currently have no information for VERBENA Interactions. Vervain (Verbena): a forgotten medicinal herb. The leaf and flower are used in herbal medicine. View abstract. Deepak M, Handa SS. It can survive in partial shade as well, but it definitely still needs to be well-drained. In folk medicine, vervain was used for protection, but was also used as an aphrodisiac, earning it the name herba veneris, or “herb of love.” The plant was highly revered in many European cultures and was considered a virtual panacea to treat organs of the abdominal region – along with the lungs, and as a remedy for headaches. The usual adult dosage is 2 to 3 grams, three times daily. So, you should try to include it in your natural holistic healing regimen. View abstract. Vervain is also used in Hildegard of Bingen medicine as an herb to address symptoms related to the common cold. Medicinal verbena is a very interesting wild plant, both for its health benefits and therapeutic value as for its qualities as a fragrant herb.. Key medicinal verbena facts. Life Sci 2004;74:1051-64. (Verbena officinalis) HEALTH BENEFITS OF VERBENA Remedies with vervain in external use In external use, verbena plant is very suitable to mitigate pain. Consult with your physician if you suffer from any serious medical conditions or are currently under the care for a health condition. In ancient Persia, the Persians also treated vervain as a sacred plant. Verbena officinalis is a medicinal herb that you may want to consider adding to your current herb garden. We have a vervain tea (also called blue vervain tea) recipe for you from Hildegard. Acteoside as the analgesic principle of Cedron (Lippia triphylla), a Peruvian medicinal plant. We often talk about the value of bitter substances, particularly as digestive agents. A mild form of gum disease (gingivitis). As a medicinal plant vervain has been largely forgotten, and is often confused in German homeopathy for the fragrant Lemon Beebrush (aloysia citrodora), which is often included in herbal teas. Ancient cultures throughout Europe have held vervain in high esteem. During the Middle Ages, vervain was often used in magicians’ and witches’ potions. Prakash, A. O. It should not be given to pregnant women, though it can be used to assist contractions during labour[238]. Verbena officinalis (common vervain) is a medicinal plant species widely distributed in the world and commonly used in folk medicine of different countries, including traditional Chinese medicine. Lemon verbena is actually an entirely different plant. The medicinal effects of vervain include: The natural astringent activity of vervain is what makes it a good oral rinse for bleeding gums and mouth ulcers. These populations of individuals used Verbena Officinalis to treat insomnia, circulatory problems, and headaches. They contain concentrations of bitter plant compounds and tannins, as well as silica and volatile essential oils. You can use it topically for wound treatment as well as for treating skin disorders. Lee KJ, Woo ER, Choi CY, et al. In fact, midwives use vervain for its effectiveness in encouraging labor. Contracept.Fertil.Sex (Paris) 1985;13(4):649-655. Del Pozo MD, Gastaminza G, Navarro JA, et al. It is usually gathered from the wild both for local use and for sale, but is sometimes also cultivated. Vervain is anti-spasmodic, which makes it a great way to relieve cramps. Some people think verbena may be an effective treatment for kidney and liver problems, urinary tract disorders, gall bladder disease, and digestive problems, including constipation, diarrhea, and gas. Vervain has a long history as a medicinal herb across many different cultures. Verbena is a mild choleretic and hepatic stimulant. Quiz: What Do You Know About Vitamin B12 Deficiency? Nakamura T, Okuyama E, Tsukada A, et al. The vervain plant will grow wild in most soils. The analgesic properties of verbena come from its content in ursolic and caffeic acids and hastatoside (glucoside). Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. Even its nicknames convey adoration, as in: the herb of love and the herb of the cross. The Greek physician, Hippocrates, is said to have recommended Verbena officinalis for fever and plague. 1-15-2005;96(3):429-444. Discover Proven Fasting Methods from Hildegard of Bingen, ← Cubeb Pepper, a medicinal plant used for thousands of years, General pain relief, especially joint pain. Genus:Verbena officinalis ... A quick history and a few myths surrounding this magical and medicinal wonder In ancient Egypt, it was said to have sprung from Isis’ tears as she mourned the death of Osiris. Early research shows that taking a specific product containing verbena and other ingredients (SinuComp, Sinupret) along with antibiotics and/or nasal decongestants may improve symptoms and reduce the duration of sinusitis better than the standard medications alone. It also is thought to have anti-depressant and anti-tumor activity. The medicinal use of vervain can be traced back to the 18th century book "Sauer's Herbal Cure," where it was said to aid in the treatment of kidney stones. Cambridge University Press. Externally, it is used to treat minor injuries, eczema, sores, neuralgia and gum disease[238]. This plant is a nervine, an herbal tonic that can be taken over a period of time to nourish the nervous system. Verbena Officinalis was first used for medicinal purposes by the Aztec people, German people, and the Native Americans. Medicinal Uses of Blue Vervain Blue vervain (Verbena hastata) is commonly used for emotional and psychological well-being, especially for conditions relating to anxiety and feeling overwhelmed. Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online? The plant is often used in modern herbalism, where it has a wide range of applications. Known Hazards None known Botanical References. Vervain can be used as a tea, a tincture, or topically. Allergic contact dermatitis from Verbena officinalis L. Contact Dermatitis 1994;31:200-1. J Ethnopharmacol. Neubauer N, Marz RW. The use of vervain for medicinal, ceremonial, and superstitious purposes goes back thousands of years. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;73:317-22. If you find the taste of vervain tea to be unappealing, there are many commercially available forms of vervain you can take. What is verbena? Blue vervain (Verbena hastata), however, is known to potentially interfere with blood pressure medications. 2016;47(6):491-8. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Tafi del Valle (Tucuman, Argentina). Headaches 2. Add 2 heaping teaspoons of the herbal mixture per one cup of hot water. 1. Other medicinal species are native to North America. Both the Greeks and the Romans believed that vervain was a holy plant. It will also strengthen your liver and kidneys. Bleeding, infected gums, canker sores, and tooth decay are thought to benefit from using vervain. Available at: Verbena is derived from Latin, meaning ‘sacred bough’, in reference to the leafy twigs of vervaine (Verbena officinalis) which were historically carried by priests, used in wreaths for druidic rituals, and for medicine. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Inhibition of non-haem iron absorption in man by polyphenolic-containing beverages. 17. These chemical plant compounds give vervain its healing medicinal properties. Blue vervain may also interact with drugs used in hormone therapy. This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. Medicinal verbena relieves digestive pain (gastritis, colitis, etc.) Not for use during pregnancy or lactation. View abstract. Medical use of Common Vervain is usually as a herbal tea; Nicholas Culpeper's 1652 The English Physitian discusses folk uses. Hurrell RF, Reddy M, Cook JD. Other active plant components include glycosides (verbenin) and alkaloids. Toxicol Lett 6-16-1997;92(1):39-46. Hildegard extoled the virtues of bitter flavors and encouraged working to improve our tolerance for bitter herbs. Gargling vervain with lukewarm water also helps to relieve sore throat inflammation. Another common medicinal use of verbena officinalis is to treat problems in the mouth and throat. Name – Verbena officinalis Family – Verbenaceae Type – perennial, grown as an annual. Action profile and efficacy of a herbal combination preparation for the treatment of sinusitis. You can use vervain for the following conditions: Vervain stimulates bile flow and establishes balance among bodily juices. It is useful in irritated, depressed states. The flavor of vervain tea takes some getting used to. Vervain will spread slowly, staying low to the ground until blooming mid-summer through early fall. You can use vervain as a skin lotion or compress. Br J Nutr 1999;81:289-95. Verbena officinalis is a perennial plant growing up to 1 metre tall. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for verbena. © 2005 - 2019 WebMD LLC. The vervain flower can bloom light blue to purple flowers, but some vervain will bloom with pink or white flowers. The result of these interactions is how vervain helps you heal or relieves discomfort of underlying illness or injury. Vervain is used in traditional medicine to treat infections and abdominal pain and to promote milk production in breastfeeding women. Vervain helps relieve discomfort from insect bites and can accelerate the healing process by closing wounds more quickly. View abstract. Also known by such names as common verbena, wild verbena, simpler’s joy, holy herb, enchanter’s plant, mosquito plant, wild hyssop, Indian hyssop, blue vervain, juno’s tears, pigeon’s grass, pigeonweed, and herb of the cross, vervain answers to many names. It is said to be useful in intermittent fevers, ulcers, ophthalmia, pleurisy, etc., and to be a good galactogogue. Vervain can be used in an infusion, tincture, poultice or ointment, depending on what ailment is being treated. Verbena Officinalis was used in the 18th century for the treatment of stones in the kidneys, as it stimulates urine dilution and output. Both vervain and lemon verbena are in the same plant family, but there are many plants in the Verbena family. Large doses of blue vervain have also caused diarrhea and vomiting in some people. The Greeks called it hierobotane, “holy plant”, while the Roman version of the name was herba sacra or “sacred herb.” The Romans also used the vervain plant to bless their altars. Drink two to three cups daily, but for no longer than a week (and not during pregnancy). The herb was once thought useful for diplomacy and was present at all contract signings and carried by messengers and envoys. Most varieties will mature at 12” to 36” tall. "The Names of Plants". Classe : Equisetopsida Ordre : Biodiv'Écrins - Atlas de la faune et de la flore du Parc national des Écrins, 2016 - 2020 Réalisé avec GeoNature-atlas, développé. How to distinguish verbena officinalis and fragrant verbena? Vervain was a sacred plant to several ancient civilizations, including ancient Egypt. Phytother Res 2000;14:463-5. In fact, you can use our vervain tea for wound washing and compressing wounds. The Greek physician, Hippocrates, is said to have recommended Verbena officinalis for fever and plague. Vervain Uses, Benefits & Dosage - Herbal Database Vervain (Verbena officinalis) medicinal herb also called verbena, is one of the best herbs amongst all the rest of plants and the whole plant can be used for medicine. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. In Christian lore, vervain was used to treat Christ’s wounds on the cross, which is why vervain is sometimes called the herb of the cross. When chewed or used as a mouthwash, it can help alleviate bad breath. Or you can just soak a clean cloth in a strong version of vervain tea and apply directly to your skin. The significance of vervain as a cultural symbol and healing plant is partly how it acquired its many names. © 2020 Healthy Hildegard. The origins of vervain are not entirely known, but it is believed to be native to southern Europe in the Mediterranean region. Vervain (Verbena officinalis) has no known psychoactive effects, however it is used in Medical Herbalism for various purposes, including as a Sleep Herb. Other traditional uses of this medicinal herb include treatment of colds, fever, asthma, colic, jaundice, gout, gallstones and parasitic worms. Where does the vervain plant grow? Vervain has a long history in traditional medicine. What does the vervain plant look like? The parts that grow above ground are used to make medicine. Worshippers of Thor in Scandinavia similarly used vervain in ceremonies and rituals calling upon its mystical powers. Verbena officinalis is used to treat problems of the mouth and throat. What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? Dudai N, Weinstein Y, Krup M, et al. Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product? The German word for Vervain (“Eisenkraut”) includes reference to iron. Overview Information Verbena is a plant. The ancient Druids of what is now Ireland believed vervain held supernatural powers. It has also been used to help relieve tonsilitis. Medicinal verbena is lemonless and its leaves have a very serrated jagged edge. Its anti-inflammatory properties make it a great natural remedy for many different conditions. Vervain regained popularly in the 1930s as one of the 38 flowering plants used in a homeopathic tincture called Bach Flower Remedy, variations of which are still sold today. In addition to its use in Making your own vervain tea is a great way to start. The active phyto-constituents of blue vervain are adenosine, aucubin, beta-carotene, caffeic-acid, citral, hastatoside, lupeol, ursolic-acid, verbenalin, verbenin.Researchers have discovered many therapeutic activities of these constituents including cellular apoptosis or anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, astringent, antispasmodic, diuretic, and anti-parasitic. Medicinal use: A digestive tonic that increases secretion of saliva, HCl, pancreatic enzymes, increased bile secretion and gall bladder contractility, and increased intestinal motility. [Biological evaluation of some medicinal plant extracts for contraceptive efficacy in females]. You can drink vervain tea to treat any of the conditions listed previously, but it works particularly well for stomach ailments of all kinds. Marz RW, Ismail C, Popp MA. Hildegard von Bingen generally classifies the plant as “cooling.” Within Hildegard medicine she references vervain and verbena to treat swelling and inflammation in the throat, to heal ulcers, to treat jaundice, tooth and gum infections, and to reduce gum inflammation. Inspired by Hildegard for detoxification, weight loss & improved metabolism! Guarrera, P. M., Forti, G., and Marignoli, S. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy). Notwithstanding the taste, vervain has played an important role in healing and herbal magic since ancient times. Template:ISBN (hardback), Template:ISBN(paperback). Verbena is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth in food amounts and POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth in small amounts as part of a combination product containing gentian root, elderflower, sorrel, and cowslip flower (SinuComp, Sinupret). Verbena is sometimes used to treat sinus problems, often in combination with other herbs. ---Medicinal Action and Uses--- It is recommended in upwards of thirty complaints, being astringent, diaphoretic, antispasmodic, etc. Even though verbena officinalis does not have any well-researched side-effects or drug interactions, you should not take vervain in large doses. While the majority of Verbena species are native to the Americas and Asia, Verbena officinalis , is native to Europe where it has been held in high esteem since classical antiquity both as a medicinal and divine plant. It is classed amongst the sacred herbs and i t continues to be associated with all-powerful and spiritual forces. Mix ten dry grams (approx 1/3 ounce) each of vervain, thyme, elderflower, cowslip primrose, and peppermint. General aches an… Therefore, it is believed the word derives from the plant’s use in the smelting process as means to help harden and improve longevity of steel.The herb was also frequently used to treat cuts and puncture wounds. Vervain herb is often confused with lemon verbena. Read on to learn how this lovely flowering medicinal herb improves health. BOURRACHE • Borrago officinalis • Boraginaceae • feuille, fleur, huile ... VERVEINE des jardins • Verbena officinalis • Verbenaceae • PE PAVOT • Papaver somniferum L. • Papaveraceae • capsules HEPATIQUE • Hepatica • Renonculaceae • plante entière VIOLETTE • Viola odorata • Violaceae • fleur, racine OEILLET D’INDE • Tagetes patula L. • Synanthereae • fruit Our modern palettes are less accustomed to bitter flavors and vervain is particularly bitter. The leaves and flowering stems are analgesic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antispasmodic, astringent, depurative, diaphoretic, mildly diuretic, emmenagogue, galactogogue, stimulant, tonic and vulnerary[4, … More recently, vervain has become known for its effect in treating infections in the airways. Calendula officinalis. All information will be used in a manner consistent with the WebMD, Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Coronavirus in Context: Interviews With Experts, Sign Up to Receive Our Free Coroanvirus Newsletter, Do You Get Hives? View abstract. Vervain (Verbena Officinalis) is a flowering plant in the Verbena (Verbenacea) family of plants. View abstract. Among its purported benefits, vervain may help treat. Pliny the Elder described vervain as a “sacred plant” with innumerable applications including the ritual sweeping and smudging of homes and its use in potions for love and good fortune. This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. There isn't enough information to know if verbena is safe when used in medicinal amounts other than as part of the combination product. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. Things You Need to Know. The tannins are part of what gives the vervain herb its astringent (constricting) properties. View abstract. We will explore the healing powers of vervain, the many ways you can use vervain as a healing plant, and how to make vervain tea. De Oliveira, A. C., Ribeiro-Pinto, L. F., and Paumgartten, J. R. In vitro inhibition of CYP2B1 monooxygenase by beta-myrcene and other monoterpenoid compounds. View abstract. Title 21. Hernandez NE, Tereschuk ML, Abdala LR. associated with spasms thanks to the natural anti-inflammatory and antispasmodic drugs it contains (iridoids and flavonoids including apigenin). Vervain is a uterine stimulant. Although pretty, vervain flowers have no fragrance. All Rights Reserved. Currently, sorrel is used as an ingredient in herbal medicinal remedies, such as Sinupret (Bionorica SE; Neumarkt, Germany), a proprietary blend of botanicals, indicated for sinusitis and bronchitis. MEDICINAL USES: In Traditional Chinese Medicine, dried vervain is used as an antibacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and blood coagulant. View abstract. If you’re interested in possibly including it in your garden lineup, it’s helpful to know that this herb grows best in full sun with well-drained soil. Grawish ME, Anees MM, Elsabaa HM, Abdel-Raziq MS, Zedan W. Short-term effects of Verbena officinalis Linn decoction on patients suffering from chronic generalized gingivitis: Double-blind randomized controlled multicenter clinical trial. Without the means to bind to healthy cells You should also consult with your physician before taking vervain if you are currently taking any medications. officinalis is native to Europe, Asia, and Africa and has spread to North America. Citral is a new inducer of caspase-3 in tumor cell lines. It is said that it was called "tears of Isis" in Ancient Egypt and was later called "Juno's tears." In ancient Rome it was used as an altar plant, and soldiers carried with them into battle for protection. Verbena officinalis herb has been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally (as tea or liqueur) for treatment of infections and fever. This survey is being conducted by the WebMD marketing sciences department. Monographs on "Verbenae herba" have been included in the European Pharmacopoeia since 2008, and in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia since 1995.This work presents botanical characteristics of this species. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:743-8. Blue Vervain, Common Verbena, Common Vervain, Eisenkraut, Enchanter's Plant, European Vervain, Herb of Grace, Herb of the Cross, Herba Verbenae, Herbe aux Enchantements, Herbe du Foie, Herbe Sacrée, Herbe aux Sorciers, Herbe à Tous les Maux, Herbe du Sang, Herbe de Vénus, Holywort, Juno's Tears, Ma Bian Cao, Pigeon's Grass, Pigeonweed, Simpler's Joy, Turkey Grass, Veine de Vénus, Verbenae Herba, Verbena officinalis, Vervain, Verveine, Verveine Commune, Verveine des Champs, Verveine Officinale, Yerba de Santa Ana. Verbena Officinalis is a perennial plant with delicate jagged leaves and small, pale lilac five-petaled flowers on shoots. L’herbe à la saignée désigne communément une des plantes médicinales les plus réputées en France, c'est-à-dire l’achillée millefeuille mais en Dauphiné, c’est le nom populaire que l’on donne à la bétoine ou Epiaire officinale (Stachys officinalis) . Verveine officinale Verbena officinalis L., 1753 . Vervain is particularly well suited for acute and chronic inflammation of the sinuses and respiratory tracts, because it acts as anti-inflammatory as well as an expectorant. The traditional application of medicinal vervain is in tea. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.© Therapeutic Research Faculty . Chiou WF, Lin LC, Chen CF. Named by Virgil and Pliny the Elder. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you. Not all are used medicinally in the same ways as vervain. Receive our newsletter as well as special announcements about Hildegard related resources, events, and media. Vervain remedies are commonly found in Traditional German Medicine and in Hildegard of Bingen Writings. Vervain has a bitter flavor profile so it is also a natural way to add bitter flavors into your diet. The vervain herb, however, contains no iron. As always, consult with an herbalist or herbal medical practitioner if you are new to medicinal herbs. pp 74, 399 Its specific epithet means ‘fro… (check all that apply). View abstract. Swelling (inflammation) of the nasal cavity and sinuses (rhinosinusitis).

Disadvantages Of Practical Examination, Duopolis Brewdog Review, Original Eames Chair For Sale, 2015 Toyota Sienna Awd, What To Eat With Falafel Wrap, Is All Rolling Tobacco Being Banned In Ireland, Curly Hair Captions For Instagram, Haha Meaning In Japanese,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *