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[56] Despite its massive form and austere decoration, it nevertheless presents a harmonious structure and a majestic appearance. The building is a vast slightly irregular quadrilateral covering some 9,000 m2. How to Be Successful in College: Avoid Debt & Remedial Courses, Tech and Engineering - Questions & Answers, Health and Medicine - Questions & Answers, Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community. Create an account to start this course today. [58] From the outside, the dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building with its 1.90 metres thick massive ocher walls, a composite of well-worked stones with intervening courses of rubble stone and baked bricks. For the Love of Physics - Walter Lewin - May 16, 2011 - Duration: 1:01:26. [9] With the decline of the city from the mid-11th century, the centre of intellectual thought moved to the University of Ez-Zitouna in Tunis.[10]. 45, n°1, pages 103 and 105, 2007, Okba Ibn Nafaa Mosque in Kairouan (Mosque of Uqba) website, Panoramic visit of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Sacred Destinations : Great Mosque of Kairouan, Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara Mediterranean Heritage), Video of the mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Great_Mosque_of_Kairouan&oldid=995123092, 7th-century establishments in the Umayyad Caliphate, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from September 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from October 2017, Articles with dead external links from April 2019, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enclosure and gates of the Mosque of Uqba, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 10:21. study is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia.. However given the natural lay of the land crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city spread southwards. [60] Some capitals were carved for the mosque, but others come from Roman or Byzantine buildings (dating from the second to sixth century) and were reused. [89], In addition to studies on the deepening of religious thought and Maliki jurisprudence, the mosque also hosted various courses in secular subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and botany. Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin and Sharon La Boda, « Kairouan (Tunisia) Â», Présentation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (ArchNet), Plafonds de la salle de prière de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), Minbar of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), "Maqsura of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara)", Circular chandelier (Discover Islamic Art), Nurdin Laugu, « The Roles of Mosque Libraries through History Â», Al-Jami‘ah, vol. [72] The shafts of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds. Services. It is a hypostyle hall with a flat roof; however there are domes above the mihrab and entry. [82] Among all the pulpits of the Muslim world, it is certainly the oldest example of minbar still preserved today. The Great Mosque of Kairouan This is the oldest and most important Islamic building in North Africa and was originally built by Oqba ibn Nafi, the Arab commander who founded Kairouan in AD 672. The trip is doable as a day trip from most tourist resorts including Hammamet, Sousse and Monastir.Combine it with a visit to the Zaouia of Sidi Sahab to … Log in here for access. These tiles are mainly decorated with floral and plant motifs (stylised flowers, palm leaves and asymmetrical leaves on bottom hatch and checkered) belong to two series: one polychrome characterised by a greater richness of tones ranging from light gold to light, dark or ocher yellow, and from brick-red to brown lacquer, the other monochrome is a beautiful luster that goes from smoked gold to green gold. Kairouan Great Mosque. The dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. It is formed by an oven-shaped niche framed by two marble columns and topped by a painted wooden half-cupola. the Great Mosque of Kairouan, in Tunisia. By the founder of Kairouan it was built, he was the Sidi Oqba, for that as the Sidi Oqba Mosque is also known the mosque. Kairouan’s rampart-enclosed medina (75 acres [30 hectares]) contains the Great Mosque, with a 115-foot- (35-metre-) high minaret. The Great Mosque of Kairouan was a public structure, set along roads that served a city with a vibrant commercial, educational, and religious life. There are also many gates. [85], The library is near located, accessible by a door which the jambs and the lintel are carved in marble, adorned with a frieze of floral decoration. It is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, and is a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb. The building is composed of a courtyard and prayer hall to the southeast. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (جامع القيروان الأكبر), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (Arabic: جامع عقبة بن نافع ‎‎), is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan.. As such, it assumed the important function of representing a cosmopolitan and urbane Kairouan, one of the first cities organized under Muslim rule in North Africa. The great mosque of Damascus: studies on the makings of an Umayyad visual culture by: Flood, Finbarr Barry 1965- Published: (2001) The great mosque of Isfahan by: Grabar, Oleg 1929-2011 Published: (1990) This famous place of worship has two main elements, including the pillared prayer hall and the courtyard. One may enter the prayer hall either from the courtyard or from two side doorways. [78], The mosque's mihrab, whose decor is a remarkable witness of Muslim art in the early centuries of Islam, is distinguished by its harmonious composition and the quality of its ornaments. [45] The northern part of the courtyard is paved with flagstones while the rest of the floor is almost entirely composed of white marble slabs. The sanctuary is 137 by 37 meters and there are 17 naves and 8 bays. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (Arabic: جامع القيروان الأكبر‎), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia and is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa.[1]. Archaeological research provides detailed evidence that this mosque went The Great Mosque of Kairouan: Full of history - See 528 traveller reviews, 796 candid photos, and great deals for Kairouan, Tunisia, at Tripadvisor. This valuable collection, observed from the late nineteenth century by the French orientalists Octave Houdas and René Basset who mention in their report on their scientific mission in Tunisia published in the Journal of African correspondence in 1882, comprises according to the inventory established at the time of the Hafsids (circa 1293–1294) several Qur'ans and books of fiqh that concern mainly the Maliki fiqh and its sources. Introduction:- The Mosque of Uqba also known as the Great Mosque of Kairouan, is an early example of a hypostyle mosque that also reflects how pre-Islamic and eastern Islamic art and motifs were incorporated into the religious architecture of Islamic North Africa. Be sure to bring a bunch of cash if you're interested in purchasing Tunisian rugs- they are handmade, traditional crafts of the area and are stunningly beautiful. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. [25] In 875 Emir Ibrahim II built another three bays, thereby reducing the size of the courtyard which was further limited on the three other sides by the addition of double galleries. L’université zaytounienne et la société tunisienne, Discover the architectural wonder and historical significance of this place of worship. This is the least expensive place to buy … The mosque is about 70 by 125 meters and is an irregular rectangle in plan. If one refers to the story of Al-Bakri, an Andalusian historian and geographer of the eleventh century, it is the mihrab which would be done by Uqba Ibn Nafi, the founder of Kairouan, whereas Lucien Golvin shares the view that it is not an old mihrab but hardly a begun construction which may serve to support marble panels and either goes back to work of Ziadet Allah I (817–838) or to those of Abul Ibrahim around the years 862–863. The library window is marked by an elegant setting that has two columns flanking the opening, which is a horseshoe arch topped by six blind arches and crowned by a series of berms sawtooth.[86]. [88], At the time of its greatest splendor, between the ninth and eleventh centuries AD, Kairouan was one of the greatest centres of Islamic civilisation and its reputation as a hotbed of scholarship covered the entire Maghreb. The Mosque of Uqba, one of the few religious buildings of Islam has remained intact almost all of its architectural and decorative elements, is due to the richness of its repertoire which is a veritable museum of Islamic decorative art and architecture. 's' : ''}}. [61] They cross with right angle in front of the mihrab, this device, named "T shape", which is also found in two Iraqi mosques in Samarra (around 847) has been adopted in many North African and Andalusian mosques where it became a feature. Kairouan (from UNESCO) Next lesson. [66] This sumptuous door, which has four leaves richly carved with geometric motifs embossed on the bottom of foliages and interlacing stars, is decorated at the typanum by a stylised vase from which emerge winding stems and leaves. The latest, dated the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (mostly dating from the time of the Muradid Beys), are distinguished by an epigraphic decoration consists of long black and red texts on olive green background to those painted from 1618 to 1619, under the reign of Murad I Bey (1613–1631), while those back to the eighteenth century have inscriptions in white naskhi script on an orange background. The Great Mosque of Kairouan was a public structure, set along roads that served a city with a vibrant commercial, educational, and religious life. The rainwater collector or impluvium, probably the work of the Muradid Bey Mohamed Bey al-Mouradi (1686–1696), is an ingenious system that ensures the capture (with the slightly sloping surface of the courtyard) then filtering stormwater at a central basin furnished with horseshoe arches sculpted in white marble. [8] Its role at the time can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages. As you wander the grounds of the Great Mosque of Kairouan in Tunisia you are treading across over a millennia of history. [71] The capitals resting on the column shafts offer a wide variety of shapes and styles (Corinthian, Ionic, Composite, etc.). Anyone can earn This building is considered the first Muslim oratory in the Maghreb, which is a region of western North Africa. The Great Mosque of Cordoba. [24] Around 862–863, Emir Abu Ibrahim enlarged the oratory, with three bays to the north, and added the cupola over the arched portico which precedes the prayer hall. [62], The central nave, a sort of triumphal alley which leads to the mihrab,[63] is significantly higher and wider than the other sixteen aisles of the prayer hall. [43] Overall, the proportions and general layout of the façade of the south portico, with its thirteen arches of which that in the middle constitutes a sort of triumphal arch crowned with a cupola, form an ensemble with "a powerful air of majesty", according to the French historian and sociologist Paul Sebag (1919–2004). This porch of seven metres high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. A brief discussion of the Great Mosque at Kairouan. It is bordered on each side of a double row of arches rested on twin columns and surmounted by a carved plaster decoration consisting of floral and geometric patterns. Though the mosque is now near the northwest city ramparts established in the eleventh century, when Sidi Okba founded Kairouan, it was probably closer to the center of town, near what was the governor’s residence and the main thoroughfare, a symbolically prominent and physical visible part of the city… If there is any building that is venerated and treated with so much reverence in Islam, it is the mosque. {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Behind the openwork hint, there is an oldest niche on which several assumptions were formulated. The Great Mosque, also known as the Sidi Oqba mosque, had its simple beginnings in 670 AD, during the time of Uqba ibn Nafi, the original founder of Kairouan. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. Those in white marble come from Italy,[60] some shafts located in the area of the mihrab are in red porphyry imported from Egypt,[73] while those made of greenish or pink marble are from quarries of Chemtou, in the north-west of current Tunisia. [26], The current state of the mosque can be traced back to the Aghlabid period—no element is earlier than the ninth century besides the mihrab—except for some partial restorations and a few later additions made in 1025 during the Zirid period,[27] 1248 and 1293–1294 under the reign of the Hafsids,[28] 1618 at the time of Muradid beys,[29] and in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Divided into two groups, they are dated from the beginning of the second half of the ninth century but it is not determined with certainty whether they were made in Baghdad or in Kairouan by a Baghdadi artisan, the controversy over the origin of this precious collection agitates the specialists. [60] The wooden rods, which usually sink to the base of the transom, connect the columns together and maintain the spacing of the arches, thus enhancing the stability of all structures which support the ceiling of the prayer hall.[74]. The wall of the mihrab is covered with 28 panels of white marble, carved and pierced, which have a wide variety of plant and geometric patterns including the stylised grape leaf, the flower and the shell. [84] This old chair of the ninth century is still in its original location, next to the mihrab. The history of the Great Mosque of Kairouan: In 670 in Kairouan was built the first mosque, to North Africa of Muslim Arabs shortly after the arrival. éditions Maison Tiers-Monde, A legend says they could not count them without going blind. Other works of art such as the crowns of light (circular chandeliers) made in cast bronze, dating from the Fatimid-Zirid period (around the tenth to the early eleventh century), originally belonged to the furniture of the mosque. In 1967, major restoration works, executed during five years and conducted under the direction of the National Institute of Archeology and Art, were achieved throughout the monument, and were ended with an official reopening of the mosque during the celebration of the Mawlid of 1972.[30]. The minbar, situated on the right of the mihrab, is used by the imam during the Friday or Eids sermons, is a staircase-shaped pulpit with an upper seat, reached by eleven steps, and measuring 3.93 metres' length to 3.31 metres in height. Jewel of the art of woodwork produced during the reign of the Zirid prince Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis and dated from the first half of the eleventh century, it is considered the oldest still in place in the Islamic world. One of the most important mon­uments in Kairouan is the Great Mosque of Uqba, which dates to the seventh century. [11] This location corresponded originally to the heart of the urban fabric of the city founded by Uqba ibn Nafi. first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. [83] Probably made by cabinetmakers of Kairouan (some researchers also refer to Baghdad), it consists of an assembly of more than 300 finely carved wood pieces with an exceptional ornamental wealth (vegetal and geometric patterns refer to the Umayyad and Abbasid models), among which about 90 rectangular panels carved with plenty of pine cones, grape leaves, thin and flexible stems, lanceolate fruits and various geometric shapes (squares, diamonds, stars, etc.). Also known as the reign of Charlemagne ninth century is still in its original.. Are large rents for the Love of Physics - Walter Lewin - may 16 2011! 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